Learning Goals

Learning Goals

  • Describe and speak to lexical scoping in JavaScript
  • Understand and implement closures


  • lexical scope also known as static scope
  • closure a function that has a reference to its outer/lexical environment

Lexical Scope

Though we haven’t put a name to it until now, our conversations around scope and the scope chain are directly related to what we call lexical scoping.

Lexical scoping means that our scope is statically bound, and therefore perfectly predictable upon authoring our code. You can see lexical scope by looking directly at code, as it reads:

function eatSnack() {
  var hunger = 25;


  function getHangry() {
    console.log('I am sooooooo HANGRY!');


In our example above, the lexical scope for our getHangry function is the scope (and any variables) that are contained within eatSnack.

All inner functions (since functions create new scope) are statically (lexically) bound during the Creation Phase to the parent context in which the inner function was physically defined in the source/program code.


Closures are expressions (usually functions) which can work with variables set within a certain context. In other words, a closure is formed when a function is defined inside of another function (one function nested inside of another function). This allows the inner function to access to the outer function’s variables via the scope chain.

Let’s build on a definition together. At the most basic level, a closure is when an inner function is defined inside of another function.

This is syntactically and factually correct, but it doesn’t tell us much about what’s significant here. So a more thorough definition might be: a closure is when an inner function has access to its outer function’s variables.

Let’s look at an example:

function greet() { 
  var firstName = 'Alan'; // a local variable created by greet()  
  function displayName() { // displayName() an inner function
    console.log(firstName); // access variable declared in parent fn


Turn and talk

With a partner, walk through the code execution above.

How is this code executing? What details did you note?

  1. When we get to the console log for firstName, the JS interpreter first looks in its current scope (within displayName) for a firstName variable that it can grab the value from.
  2. It doesn’t find it, so it traverses up the scope chain to the parent scope (greet) and again looks for a firstName variable to reference.
  3. It finds it here, with a value of Alan, so the log will say Alan.

Now let’s modify this example a bit. Instead of invoking displayName right away within our greet function, we’ll return it:

function greet() { 
  var firstName = 'Alan'; // a local variable created by greet()  
  function displayName() { // displayName() an inner function
    console.log(firstName); // access variable declared in parent fn
  return displayName;     

var createGreeting = greet(); // createGreeting is now a function that can be invoked
createGreeting(); // will run the displayName function and log 'Alan'

Now when we invoke greet, we get a function back (displayName). In many languages, as soon as greet is finished running, our firstName variable would be completely removed from memory.

In JavaScript this isn’t the case. Because there is an inner function here displayName – JavaScript is smart enough to know that this function can still be called (we’re going to invoke it with createGreeting()) and therefore it still needs access to the firstName variable.

So when we run this code, we’ll still get Alan to log to our console. In other languages, they would see this displayName function in isolation, and when it was invoked, it would say “I don’t have a firstName variable to reference - it’s undefined”.

This is why “What is a closure” has become such a big question in JavaScript interviews – lots of people coming from other languages are really surprised by this different behavior.

So our newer, better definition of a closure could now be: When an inner function has access to the outer function’s variables and can remember the environment in which it was created. (So not only does our inner function have access to the outer function’s variables, but it also remembers their values, even if the outer function has finished executing!)

Closures for Protecting Variables

This still might not seem like an incredibly useful feature of JavaScript, but there are some more practical use-cases for closures. Before we move on, What we want to point out about this example, in order to better understand closures, is that:

  • firstName is not available anywhere outside of the greet function. We would say that the greet function “closes over” this variable
  • the inner function, displayName can reference (or even modify) the firstName variable because it is inside the scope of the outer function greet

So one use-case for closures is to protect variables from any sort of outside manipulation. Other languages often have some really nice way of implementing private or protected variables, but JavaScript doesn’t. So if this is something we want to achieve, we would use a closure.

Take the following example:

function analyzeGrades() {
  // We keep these variables private inside this closure
  let privateGrades = [93, 95, 88, 0, 55, 91];
  return {
    changeGrades() {
      privateGrades = privateGrades.map(grade => {
        return grade + 5;
    viewGrades() {
      return privateGrades;
console.log(privateGrades) // undefined
console.log(analyzeGrades) // fn definition
console.log(analyzeGrades()) // object with changeGrades method

let instructor = analyzeGrades();
instructor.changeGrades(); // undefined (we are not returning anything from that method, but it is running)
instructor.viewGrades(); // [98, 100, 93...]


Add a new function addGrade to this closure, such that we can update our privateGrades variable, adding a new grade to the array.

Our most thorough definition of a closure is now when an inner function has access to the outer function’s variables and can remember the environment in which it was created. The outer function’s variables are protected by the closure and can only be manipulated by code defined within that function.

In the previous example, you’ll notice we could still technically change those grades and snoop on them if we wanted to. This is why we say JavaScript doesn’t have a true fashion for creating private variables. We can kind of imply that you shouldn’t be fussing with something by hiding it in a function and not exposing that variable declaration outside of it - but we can still gain access to that value. So closures aren’t really going to help if you have truly sensitive data that nobody should be able to see.


Use the closure pattern to create a “private” counter. The counter variable should be protected by an outter function. The outter function should return an object of methods that allow a user to incrementCounter, decrementCounter and getCounterValue.

Checks for Understanding

  • What is lexical scope?
  • What is a closure and how can it be helpful?

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