ES5 vs ES6

Learning Goals

  • Compare ES5 vs. ES6

The differences between ES5 and ES6

Up until now, you’ve mostly been writing ECMAScript 5. (You can read more about ECMAScript here.)

ES5 is comfortable and familiar, but ES6 gives us a lot of great new features, which we’ll start learning about here.

Template Literals

Constructing strings while interpolating variables:

// es5
var name = 'Brittany';
var greeting = 'Hello' + name + '!';

// es6
var name = 'Brittany';
var greeting = `Hello ${name}!`;


Block Scope

We’re familiar with global and function scope. Scope is literally the area of code in which a variable or value can be accessed.

We already know that variables declared (using the keyword var) inside of a function will remain scoped to that function. In other words, it won’t be accessible outside of the function.

ES6 gives us two new variable keywords: let and const. These two variable keywords introduce block scope.

What is a block? The most common ones that you will be familiar with are if statements and for loops. You can read more about block statements here.


Another difference between var vs. let and const is that variables declared with let/const will not respond to hoisting in the same way var does. Instead, if you try to access a variable declared with let or const before it’s declared, you will get a ReferenceError: Cannot access <variableName> before initialization.

The differences between let and const:

Variables declared with let can be reassigned, whereas variables declared with const cannot.

If an array or object is declared using the keyword const, the contents of that array or object can be changed, but that variable name will always point to that same piece of memory.

Turn and Talk

What are var, let, and const similar? How are they different?

Arrow Functions

ES6 gives us another way to write functions. They’re called arrow functions because they have an arrow in them. Neat!

Let’s look at the syntactic differences first:

Say we have an array of even numbers: var evens = [0, 2, 4, 6, 8];

We can map over that array to create new arrays of odds, pairs, and nums:

// es5 syntax examples
var odds = (num) {
  return num + 1;

var pairs = (num) {   
  return { even: num, odd: num + 1 };

var nums = (num, i) {
  return num + i;

var fives = [];
nums.forEach(function (num) {
  if (num % 5 === 0) {

Compare that to arrow function syntax:

var odds = =>
  num + 1

var pairs = =>
  ({ even: num, odd: num + 1 })

var nums =, i) =>
  num + i

var fives = [];
nums.forEach(num => {  
  if (num % 5 === 0) {

Here are some features arrow functions give you:

  • implicit return
    • the curly braces and keyword return can be eliminated and the remaining expression will be evaluated and returned
    • only make use of this when a single expression is written
    • multiple lines or expressions in an arrow function require the curly braces and the keyword return
  • drop the parentheses around a single parameter
    • if using multiple parameters or no parameters, the parentheses must be used

To name an arrow function, you must save it as a variable.

// es5 syntax
function sayHi() {

// es6 syntax
const sayHi = () => console.log('Hi!');

Turn and Talk

What are the benefits of using arrow functions over function declarations?

Handling Parameters

ES6 gives us more ways to handle parameters.

Default parameters:

If you want to give some parameters default values, ES6 allows you to do that with much less syntax than ES5.

Consider the following code:

// es5
function f (x, y, z) {
    y = y || 7
    z = z || 42
    return x + y + z;

f(1) // 50

// es6
function f (x, y = 7, z = 42) {
    return x + y + z

f(1) // 50

Spread operator:

The spread operator has many more applications.

var arr = [4, 5, 6];

// es5
var completeArr = [1, 2, 3].concat(arr); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

// es6
var completeArr = [1, 2, 3, ...arr]; // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

The spread operator took the individual values from the array and added them into the new array.

var string = 'hello';

// es5
var characters = string.split(''); // ['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']

// es6
var characters = [...string]; // ['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']

In this case, the split method is not terribly complex, but using the spread operator makes the code more readable at a glance; you can see that the result is an array.


Destructuring assignment allows us to unpack values from objects and arrays into their own distinct variables.

const dog = {
  name: 'Spot',
  breed: 'pug',
  tricksLearned: {
    sit: true,
    stay: true,
    rollOver: false,
    beg: true,
    speak: false

let { name, breed } = dog;
let { sit, stay, speak } = dog.tricksLearned;

console.log(name); // 'Spot'
console.log(stay); // true


// es5
const chai = require('chai');
const assert = chai.assert;
const expect = chai.expect;

// es6
import { assert, expect } from 'chai';

ES6 shortens up the importing syntax. Destructuring helps us define variables pulled out of datasets, as in the following code:

Creating variables based on key value pairs:

Turn and Code

Taking turns for each prompt in driver/navigator fashion, complete the following: Using the code example for our dog object above, use destructuring assignment to do the following:

  1. Create a variable called rollOver that holds the value of false
  2. Create a variable called robbiesFavoriteDog that holds the value from our property of breed
  3. Create variables for the following tricks: beg, and playDead (playDead should default to false)

You can read more about destructuring and the things it can do here.


  • What new changes did ES6 bring in so far as the following:
    • scope
    • functions
    • parameters

Additional Resources:

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