All the databases

Learning goals

  • Understand the types problems that the different databases solve
  • Understand the basic syntax structure for querying each database
    • Can read and write records in the database
  • Can start a new project in each database

different types of databases

Relational databases


A database engine is like an implementation. The thing that actually stores and manages your data on a hard drive. Here are some example relational engines:


Many. Most. Like 80% of the time, you want a relational database. If you aren’t sure if any other database type will work, this one probably will.


  • Lots of people know it. Lots of libraries and ORMs
  • Fast queries of complex databases


  • Slow to change. Schema has to be well planned
  • Traditional engines don’t scale well. You have to consider using something else once you get to 100M-1Bn records

Overview (and some vocabulary)


Many tables will exist in each relational database. Easiest to think of this as a spreadsheet. Each row is a “record”.


Continuing our spreadsheet metaphor, each table has a number of columns. Each record in the database has the same columns. Columns are also called fields.


A special column that identifies a specific record in a table. It’s special because it’s unique (no two records have the same value) and it’s indexed (the database knows exactly where the data is stored by it’s id). Ids are not required, but they’re kind of the point of relational databases.

Foreign Keys

Now we get to the relational part. Some tables will include special columns that refer to id columns in other tables. We refer to these columns as “foreign keys”. Foreign keys are the basis for all record relationships in a relational database.


sample schema

Some representation, usually visual, of the tables, columns, ids and foreign keys that make up a database. Basically, all the structure without the data.


Structured Query Language is it’s own language. It has variables and functions and every database engine has it’s own dialect. It’s used mostly for reading and writing data, but it can do logic and calculations on your data, often much more quickly than your silly ruby or JavaScript can.


For creating new records in a given table. A generic and a specific example:

INSERT INTO table_name ( column_1, column_2 ) VALUES ( value_1, value_2 );
INSERT INTO users ( name, email ) VALUES ( 'Nate Allen', '' );

More complicated examples


For getting some set of records from a given table. Some examples:

SELECT column_1, column_2 FROM table_name WHERE conditional AND another_conditional;
SELECT * FROM users WHERE name='Nate Allen';

Select statements are very powerful, and let you slice your data however you desire. You need only take the time to learn the syntax.

More examples


Join is where the magic happens. This is how we combine data from multiple tables through those foreign key relationships.

Joins are part of select queries. Since SQL doesn’t care about whitespace, here’s a multi line select query using a join:

SELECT posts.title, posts.description, as author
FROM users
JOIN posts ON = posts.user_id
WHERE = 1;

This will return us the title, description and author of each post for the user with an id of 1.

Reference material


  • Here’s a sandbox:
    • List the first and last name of all the customers
    • List all fields for customers from Germany
    • Insert a new customer record for yourself. What’s your id?
    • List all the orders from Maria Anders (hint: you don’t need a join yet)
    • Return the sum total amount from all of Maria Anders’ orders
    • Return the number of customers from each country
  • Some Backend Mod 2 lessons:
  • A Backend Mod 3 lesson:
  • A nifty sandbox. Try these things:
    • List the first and last name of all the customers
    • List all fields for customers from Germany
    • Insert a new customer record for yourself. What’s your id?
    • List all the orders from Maria Anders (hint: you don’t need a join yet)
    • Return the sum total amount from all of Maria Anders’ orders
    • Return the number of customers from each country
    • Return the concatenated first and last name of all customers
  • Creating a hybrid document/relational database:

SQL in code


ORMs are beyond this spike, but if you’re curious

Document Store




Collections are really just groups of documents. You usually put documents that represent the same kind of resource in a collection.

Documents (Basically JSON)

Most of the time, a document is just a set of key/value pairs. Think of a document as some JSON. In some engines, documents are XML.

Key/value pairs

A value is the actual data being stored. A key is some string used to access that data. It gets complicated when your value is a key/value pair itself, thus nesting sets of data.


It felt worth mentioning that a value can also be an array. The root of a document can also be an array.


Map and Reduce are commonly used together when querying a document store DB. You might be able to guess what they mean from other programming. Mapping is taking a set of documents, and normalizing their data into a consistent structure. Reducing is taking that set of data and running calculations on it. “MapReduce” is also the name of a database from Apache

The Hype

  • Storing data is stupid simple. Minimal planning necessary
  • Reading, writing, mapping and reducing scales really well across multiple machines for huge data sets. Distributed relational databases exist, but they’re expensive and specialized, or slow.


  • The queries are the hard part
  • Schemas are not as straight forward. There’s some amount of trial and error when doing queries, and queries can break if a document gets added that doesn’t conform.


A decent cheat sheet for common things


db.collectionName.insert({some: {javascript: object}})

db.users.insert({name: "Nate Allen", email: ""})


db.collectionName.find({someKey: someValue})

db.users.find({name: "Nate Allen"})

Getting Started

brew install mongodb

Then follow the instructions to start a server

For a really simple GUI, try robomongo


I wrote a JavaScript to fill a collection with TV shows and episodes. To give you something to play with. Here’s a gist of it

There’s also a sample dataset from the mongo people

In code

Graph Databases


  • Neo4j
  • Lots of others (not sure which ones you’ll encounter)



A.K.A Quads. A.K.A. Vertices. These are the resources. Each node can be it’s own class, but typically you have several nodes of the same class.


A.K.A Triples. A.K.A. Relationships. These describe the relationship between nodes. They connect in one direction, and describe the relationship of one node to another. They are not reciprocal, meaning you often have two relationships in opposite directions between the same two nodes.


Nodes and Edges have properties. There is no requirement that properties are consistent. They can be whatever you want on each new thing you create in the database, although consistent properties are going to make your queries easier.

What does this all look like?

An example of relational databases breaking down

Sample graphs

Getting started

You need to install the JDK before you can install Neo4j. Type javac -version to see if you have it. If you don’t you’ll probably be prompted to install it. You can try that. I haven’t. If you’re already a user of brew cask, just brew cask install java. Otherwise, download from here

Then you can brew install neo4j and follow the instructions to start the server.

If you want to skip the java installation entirely, and I wouldn’t blame you, you can also sign up for an online sandbox here:


Neo4j has a really nice set of tutorials after you get up and running. I’d also play with this Game of Thrones dataset

In code

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